The Feldenkrais Method is based on our current understanding of the processes involved in learning movement skills. It is a systematic approach to improving human movement and general functioning. Feldenkrais depends on our brain's ability to change rapidly, a process called neuroplasticity. It's basic premise is man's ability to learn and access a myriad of software programs for each and every action a human performs.
It would make sense that a system existed to upgrade brain hardware to keep up with these new software options. And there is. Scientists at Duke have found a new type of neuron in the adult brain that is capable of telling stem cells to make more new neurons. Though the experiments are in their early stages, the findings open the amazing possibility that the brain may repair and upgrade itself from within (retrieved 6/4/14 from Neuron Tells Stem Cells to Grow New Neurons.)
This research explains the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of the Feldenkrais Method. It will be exciting to see what research comes next to validate this form of physical improvement.